Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li, and atomic number 3 in the Periodic Table of Elements. It is the lightest solid element at ambient temperature, indeed the lightest metal.

Lithium has numerous uses including in medical applications, ceramics, glass, lubricants and nuclear technology. Most importantly it is a key component of long life, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, used to power mobile devices (phones, laptops and other consumer electronics). However, in more recent times battery manufacture has been accelerating due to the burgeoning demand in automotive applications (electric vehicles – EVs), and also energy storage systems (ESS) to better utilise renewable energy supply, particularly solar and wind-generated power.

Lithium-ion batteries are lighter and can store three times more energy than nickel-hydride and lead-acid batteries. Their unit cost continues to fall with technological improvements, adding further to demand and improving competitiveness.